Skeletal

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Medical TermDescription
amputationThe removal of a limb or other body appendage.
ankleThe region between the foot and leg.
ankyl/obent, stiff
ankylosisFixation and immobility of a joint.
armThe superior part of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow.
arthr/ojoint
arthralgiaJoint pain.
arthritisInflammation of joints, characterized by pain, swelling and diminished range of motion.
arthrodesisThe surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells.
arthrolysisSurgical restoration of mobility in stiff, ankylosed joints.
arthroscopyExamination, therapy and surgery of a joint using an endoscope.
articul/ojoint
artificial limbsProsthetic replacements for arms and legs.
autologousOne individual being both donor and recipient (e.g. blood).
backThe rear surface from the shoulders to the hip.
boneA dense, hard connective tissue that forms the framework of the skeleton.
brachi/oarm
burs/obursa (fluid sac near joints)
calc/icalcium
calc/ocalcium
carp/owrist
carpalRelating to the wrist.
caud/otail
cephal/ohead
cervic/oneck, cervix
chinThe prominence formed by the anterior projection of the mandible and the soft tissue covering it.
chir/ohand
chondr/icartilage
chondr/ocartilage
chondromaA benign tumor derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage
ChondromalaciaAbnormal softening or degeneration of cartilage. A common runner's injury in the knees.
clavicleThe collar bone.
clavicul/oclavicle
coccyg/ococcyx (tailbone)
condyl/oknob
cost/orib
costochondritisA benign inflammation of one or more of the costal cartilages. Usually caused by overuse of chest wall muscles.
crani/oskull
craniumThe skeleton of the head, holding the brain.
crepitationA crackling sound that occurs in joints.
dactyl/ofingers, toes
digit/ofinger, toe
dorsalPertaining to the back or posterior.
faci/oface
femor/ofemoral (thigh bone)
femurThe longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
footThe distal extremity of the leg, consisting of the tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges and the soft tissues surrounding the bones.
forearmPart of the arm in humans extending from the elbow to the wrist.
foreheadThe part of the face above the eyes.
goni/oangle
handThe distal part of the arm beyond the wrist consisting of the carpus, metacarpus, and fingers.
headThe upper part of the body containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
ili/oilium (uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis)
joint capsuleThe sac surrounding a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner synovial membrane.
kneeThe joint between inferior femur and superior
kyph/obent, hump
kyphosisDeformities of the spine characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. Sometimes called round back or hunchback.
lamin/olamina (part of the vertebral arch that forms the roof of the spinal canal)
laminectomyA surgical procedure to remove a portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina.
legThe inferior part of the lower extremity between the knee and the ankle. Common usage is the entire lower limb.
ligamentFlexible, tough bands of fibrous tissue connecting bones at a joint.
lord/ocurve, swayback
lumb/olower back
lumbagoMild to severe low back pain.
lumbarReferring to the lower back below the thoracic vertebrae and above the sacral vertebrae.
mandibul/omandible (lower jaw bone)
manubriumThe uppermost part of the sternum.
mastoid/orounded protrusion of bone behind the ear
maxill/oupper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones
mega-large, great
metacarpalsThe long bones in the hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist.
metatarsalsFive long bones in the foot, located between the ankle and toes.
neckThe body part connecting the head to the rest of the body.
orthodonticsThe dental specialty dealing with correction of dental abnormalities.
orthopedicsA surgical specialty which treats and corrects injuries, deformities and diseases to the skeletal system and joints.
orthoticA device for correcting an orthopedic problem. Commonly used for the foot.
oss/ebone
oss/ibone
oste/obone
osteitisInflammation of the bone.
osteoarthritisA progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis.
osteomalaciaAn interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets.
osteonecrosisDeath of a bone or part of a bone.
osteoporosisReduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures.
pan-all
pelv/ipelvis
pelvisThe lower portion of the trunk, bounded anteriorly and laterally by the two hip bones and posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx.
plantarBottom of the foot
pod/ofoot
postureThe position of the body.
prosthesisA device that replaces a missing body part or makes a part of the body work better.
pub/opubic, pubes
rachi/ospinal column
rheumatoid arthritisAn autoimmune disease that causes pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, commonly the hands and wrists. May lead to early crippling.
ricketsA disease of growing bone caused by interruption of bone mineralization. Caused by lack of vitamin D.
sacr/osacrum (large bone at base of spine)
scapul/oscapula (shoulder blade)
scoli/ocurved, crooked
shoulderThe junction of the clavicle, scapula, and humerus where the arm connects to the trunk.
skeletonThe rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues and provides attachments for muscles.
spin/ospine
spineThe spinal or vertebral column.
spondyl/overtebra, backbone
stern/osternum (breastbone)
sternumA long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as breastbone occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head and neck.
synovi/osynovial membrane, synovial joint
tars/otarsal bone (ankle), edge of eyelid
tendinitisInflammation of a tendon.
thumbThe first digit on the radial side of the hand opposite the other four digits.
tibi/otibia
tibiaThe medial and larger of the two bones of the lower leg, articulating with the fibula laterally, the talus distally, and the femur proximally.
toothOne of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
vertebraeThe bones or segments composing the spinal column,

Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Barbara A. Erickson
Medically reviewed by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
Last Update: 12/18/2022

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