First and Second Heart Sounds - Normal and Unsplit
First and Second Heart Sounds - Normal and UnsplitThis is a normal first and second heart sound at 60 beats per minute. You are auscultating at the Mitral valve area (Apex). The first heart sound has slightly greater intensity than the second heart sound.
- The first heart sound is produced by the closing of the mitral and tricuspid valve leaflets.
- The second heart sound is produced by the closing of the aortic and pulmonic valve leaflets.
- The second heart sound is unsplit when the subject is holding his or her breath at peak expiration.
Auscultation Sound From Lesson
Patient Recording - Half Speed Playback
The patient's position should be supine.
Observe Cardiac Animation
First and Second Heart Sounds - Normal and Unsplit | #32
Authors and ReviewersAuthored by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD and Diane Wrigley, PA.
Medically reviewed by Dr. Barbara Erickson, PhD, RN, CCRN.
Last Update: 12/06/2021
Heart Sounds and Murmurs Across the Lifespan (with CD)
by Dr Barbara Ann Erickson
ISBN-10: 0323020453; ISBN-13: 978-0323020459
Heart Sounds and Murmurs: A Practical Guide with Audio CD-ROM 3rd Edition
Elsevier-Health Sciences Division
Barbara A. Erickson, PhD, RN, CCRN
Heart Sounds Made Easy with CD-ROM: (with CD-ROM) 2nd Edition
Anthony P. Salmon
- NCBI Review of Heart Sounds and Murmurs: A Practical Guide
The Virtual Cardiac Patient: A Multimedia Guide to Heart Sounds And Murmurs
Jonathan Keroes, David Lieberman
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkin)
ISBN-10: 0781784425; ISBN-13: 978-0781784429
Ventricular Function Curves in the Exercising Dog
JONATHAN KEROES , ROGER R. ECKER , and ELLIOT RAPAPORT
Circulation Research, Vol. 25, No. 5
Electrocardiographic changes associated with ritodrine-induced maternal tachycardia and hypokalemia
American Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology, VOLUME 154, ISSUE 4, P921-923, APRIL 01, 1986
Susan K Hendricks, MD, Jonathan Keroes, MD, Michael Katz, MD
A Multimedia Guide to Heart Sounds and Murmurs
January 2007 JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 297(2):217-218
DOI:10.1001/jama.297.2.217. M. Saleem Seyal, MD, Reviewer
Heart and Lung Sounds Reference Library
Diane S. Wrigley
Impact Patient Care: Key Physical Assessment Strategies and the Underlying Pathophysiology
Diane S Wrigley & Rosale Lobo
- Practical Clinical Skills: Lung Sounds
- Essential Lung Sounds
Diane S. Wrigley, PA-C
Published by MedEdu LLC
- PESI Faculty - Diane S Wrigley
Case Profiles in Respiratory Care 3rd Ed, 2019
Published by Delmar Cengage
- Essential Lung Sounds
by William A. French
Published by Cengage Learning, 2011
- Understanding Lung Sounds
Stevben Lehrer, MD
Return to Reference Guide Index Page