Number of cardiovascular flashcards studied: 0
|condition of the heart
|condition of the blood
|Drug that lowers BP by inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) allowing increased blood flow
|Blood lacks enough erythrocytes (RBC) or hemoglobin.
|A sac-like dilatation of a blood vessel wall. It indicates a weak spot in the wall which may rupture.
|blood or lymph vessel
|Chest pain, pressure, or squeezing, often due to ischemia of the heart muscle.
|An x-ray study of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
|Repair of a blood vessel such as widening a narrowed artery or vein. This procedure is normally performed using catheterization.
|Abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel.
|Agents that slow coagulation and prevent blood clotting.
|The main trunk of the systemic arteries originating at the heart's left ventricle.
|An abnormal balloon or sac-like dilatation in the aortic wall.
|A congenital heart abnormality where the aorta is narrowed.
|Narrowing of the aortic valve opening, reducing outflow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
|The valve between the left ventricle and the aorta. It prevents back flow of blood into the left ventricle.
|aortic valve regurgitation
|Back flow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.
|A condition in which bone marrow doesn't produce sufficient blood elements.
|Abnormal heartbeat rhythm.
|arterial blood gases
|A test that measures the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide and acidity (pH) in the blood. Some blood gases devices make additional measurements available.
|The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
|Thickening and stiffening of arterial walls.
|Narrowing of arterial walls.
|Complete absence of cardiac output and electrical activity in the heart.
|plaque, soft fatty deposit
|A thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls due to plaque deposits. Also called atherosclerosis.
|A thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls due to plaque deposits.
|The upper chambers of the heart which receive blood flow from the body.
|Abnormal cardiac rhythm characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the atria. Increases risk of stroke and heart disease.
|A very rapid, irregular heart rhythm. A common form of tachyarrhythmia.
|A small group of specialized muscle fibers located on the floor of the right atrium. It regulates electrical signals to the ventricles, preventing rapid conduction and ensuring that the atria have emptied.
|Inflammation of the heart's lining or valves caused by bacteria in the bloodstream.
|Granular leukocytes which stain blue-black with basic dyes. Active in inflammatory responses.
|Drugs that slow heart rate and reduce pumping force. Used to treat high blood pressure, angina, heart failure, migraines.
|The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system. Whole blood in comprised of blood cells suspended in a liquid medium (plasma).
|Pressure of the blood on the arteries, veins and chambers of the heart.
|Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by abnormally slow heart rate, usually below 50 beats per minute in adults.
|bundle branch block
|A type of heart block where the electrical signals to the ventricles are interrupted at the Bundle of HIS, preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.
|bundle of His
|Cells that conduct electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles.
|calcium channel blockers
|A class of drugs that inhibit calcium influx through cellular membranes. Used to reduce cardiac workload to treat hypertension or angina.
|The minute blood vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrients to the cells. They connect the arterioles and venules.
|Of or pertaining to the heart.
|A diagnostic procedure for creating an angiogram using a contrast agent. Also used for treating blocked arteries.
|The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
|An enlargement of the heart. Multiple causes.
|Disease of the heart muscle. Can be congenital, or acquired from infections, alcoholism, thyroid disease, toxic drugs.
|The heart and the blood vessels by which blood is pumped and circulated through the body.
|Inflammation of the heart. Three types are pericarditis (pericardium), myocarditis (heart muscle) and endocarditis (endocardium).
|The two major arteries of the neck that supply blood to the head; each artery has two branches, internal and external.
|The principal sterol of the body. Contributes to cell structure and digestive bile. Helps produce vitamin D and some hormones.
|congenital heart defect
|An abnormality that is present at birth and can affect the structure and function of an infant's heart.
|congestive heart failure
|The heart isn't able to pump sufficient blood. Typical causes are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity.
|Supplies blood to the heart muscles from the aorta.
|coronary artery bypass
|Surgical procedure which uses a healthy blood vessel segment, such as a vein, to bypass a blocked section of a coronary artery.
|coronary artery disease
|Reduced blood flow through the coronary arteries, resulting in chest pain and heart damage.
|Coagulation of blood in the coronary arteries. Can lead to myocardial infarction.
|Medication to treat blood clots and prevent new clots from forming. Commonly used for chronic atrial fibrillation.
|Use of an electronic device to give an electric shock to the heart to reestablish normal cardiac rhythm.
|Part of the heart rhythm when the ventricles passively relax and refill with blood.
|diastolic blood pressure
|Atrial blood pressure during diastole when the heart is resting. The second number in a blood pressure reading.
|Medicines that strengthen heart contraction and to slow heart rates, particularly for atrial fibrillation.
|Medication that promote the excretion of urine, decreasing fluids in the blood vessels and reducing blood pressure. Also known as water pills.
|Heartbeat electrical impulses generated from cardiac locations other than the SA node.
|A recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Within each heartbeat, electrical waves travel through the heart. For a normally functioning heart, the P wave indicates atrial contraction, then after a short pause, the QRS complex indicates ventricular contraction and then a T wave marks the relaxation of the ventricles. EKGs are recorded on a chart paper, displayed on a monitor or digitally captured.
|A blood vessel blockage by a blood clot or other undissolved material in the bloodstream.
|A surgical procedure to remove the plaque material in the lining of an artery.
|Relating to the interior lining of the artery.
|endocardium (inner lining of the heart)
|Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart chamber and valves. Usually caused by bacterial infection.
|The innermost layer of the heart, consisting of endothelial cells.
|A type of white blood cell. A granulocyte often increased with allergies and/or parasite infections.
|The inner layer of the pericardium, covering the heart.
|red blood cell
|Cells that contains hemoglobin and that can transport oxygen to body tissues. Commonly called red blood cells.
|A blood plasma protein produced by the liver. It is one of many coagulation factors responsible for normal blood clotting.
|The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
|A birthmark that commonly appears as a bright red nodule of blood vessels in the skin. Grows during the first year of life and then recedes over time. Also called a strawberry mark.
|The medical specialty focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood diseases.
|A disorder of iron metabolism where the body absorbs too much iron. Treatment is required to avoid organ damage. A genetic disorder. 8% of population is a carrier.
|The oxygen-carrying proteins of erythrocytes (red blood cells).
|Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel. Bleeding can occur externally or internally to the body.
|The complex body process which spontaneously stops hemorrhages. This includes vessel contraction and blood adhesion, aggregation and coagulation.
|high density lipoprotein
|Cholesterol known as HDL that removes harmful cholesterol, reducing risk of heart problems.
|A device that continuously records EKGs for hours or a few days, used to diagnose abnormal cardiac rhythms.
|Conditions with excess lipids (fats) in the blood.
|Persistently high systemic arterial blood pressure.
|Insufficient sodium levels in the blood. Can be caused by loss of sodium or by increased and excessive body fluids.
|Abnormally low blood flow through an organ.
|Abnormally low blood pressure that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other organs.
|Tissue death due to lack of oxygen
|A hypoperfusion of blood through an organ or tissue caused by a obstruction of blood vessels.
|ischemic heart disease
|Recurring chest pain or discomfort when a part of the heart does not receive enough blood. Often triggered by exertion or excitement.
|Cancer of the blood. The bone marrow then produces abnormal white blood cells which do not function properly.
|low density lipoprotein
|Cholesterol that collects on blood vessel walls, increasing risk of heart problems.
|White blood cells that help determine the body's immune response to infectious microorganisms.
|A blood disorder in which the number of red blood cells is too low due to abnormally large red blood cell size. Can also be called vitamin B-12 or folate deficiency anemia.
|Red blood cell precursors that are abnormally large and dysfunctional. Found in patients with pernicious anemia.
|The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
|mitral valve prolapse
|Abnormal protrusion of mitral valve leaflets in the left atria during systole. Results in blood backflow, which causes systolic murmurs, arrhythmia and mitral valve insufficiency.
|mitral valve stenosis
|Narrowing of the passage through the mitral value. Caused by fibrosis and calcinosis. Rheumatic fever is a primary cause.
|Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes help other white blood cells remove dead or damaged tissues, attack cancer cells and regulate immunity response. Produced in the bone marrow
|A group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow fail to mature and become healthy.
|myocardium (heart muscle)
|Partial death of heart tissue caused by an obstructed blood supply. Commonly called "heart attack".
|A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart.
|Inflammation of the heart muscle. Caused by a wide range of infections and other problems.
|The heart muscle. Its contractions pump blood from heart to the lungs and systemic circulatory system.
|A type of white blood cell that is an early responder to infections.
|A vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris.
|The blockage of a blood vessel.
|Marks atrial depolarization. In a normal EKG, it precedes the QRS complex.
|Use of fingers with light pressure as part of a physical exam.
|paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
|A very rapid heartbeat that occurs sporadically. Usually lasts from a few seconds to several hours.
|Fluid accumulation within the pericardium. Severe cases can lead to cardiac tamponade.
|Watery fluid produced in the serous and visceral pericardium surrounding the surface of the heart
|pericardial friction rub
|An extra heart sound that resembles squeaky leather. May be heard in pericarditis.
|Inflammation of the pericardium, caused by infection, injury, or drugs.
|A thin layered sac enclosing the heart. Fluid between the layers lubricates the constantly moving surfaces.
|Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. A type of megaloblastic anemia.
|Inflammation of a vein, commonly a vein in the leg.
|An invasive imaging study of leg veins with a contrast agent injects using a catheter. Phlebography is the most accurate test for detecting deep vein thrombosis.
|Fatty deposits formed on the walls of arteries.
|The part of blood which is not blood cells. Blood plasma also contains glucose and other dissolved nutrients. It also helps blood clot.
|Part of blood that help stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.
|Abnormal increase in the aggregate red cell mass of the blood.
|The short wide vessel that moves blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
|The circulation of the blood to and through the lungs
|The heart valve at the intersection of the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
|pulmonary valve regurgitation
|Back flow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricular due to a leaky pulmonary valve.
|pulmonary valve stenosis
|The pathologic narrowing of the pulmonary valve opening. Limits blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.
|The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
|Cardiac muscle fibers that conduct the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract.
|premature ventricular contraction
|A segment of an EKG tracing representing ventricular depolarization.
|The recurrence of stenosis in an artery after previous treatment.
|A type of protein on the surface of red blood cells. Most people who have the Rh factor are Rh-positive. Those who do not have the Rh factor are Rh-negative.
|A serious medical condition caused by an overwhelming immune response to infection that triggers widespread inflammation. When sepsis is accompanied by hypotension despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called septic shock.
|A serious bacterial bloodstream infection. It’s also known as bacteremia, or blood poisoning.
|Blood plasma after the removal of clotting proteins.
|sickle cell anemia
|An inherited form of anemia where red blood cells become rigid, sticky and shaped like sickles. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow to parts of the body.
|The electrical impulse from the sinoatrial node is inhibited or completely blocked before it reaches the atrium.
|The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located in the upper part of the right atrium. Contraction impulses are generated at the SA node and spread over the atrium, then transmitted by the Bundle of HIS to the ventricles.
|Device for measuring arterial blood pressure. Includes an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb and a gauge showing the blood pressure.
|A small mesh tube used to treat narrow or weak arteries.
|A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to brain ischemia or intracranial hemorrhages. It is both common and deadly.
|sudden cardiac arrest
|A sudden and unexpected cessation of cardiac function due to electrical malfunction. Reversible if immediately treated.
|sudden cardiac death
|Sudden, unexpected death caused by loss of cardiac function.
|Fainting. Loss of consciousness due to diminished blood flow to the brain.
|The circulation of the blood to all parts of the body except the lungs.
|Period of heart contraction when blood is surging from the heart into the systemic circulatory system and the lungs.
|systolic blood pressure
|Arterial blood pressure during heart contraction. In blood pressure readings, it is the first number.
|Heart murmurs which occur during systole. They are heard between the first and the second heart sounds.
|The positive deflection after each QRS complex. It indicates ventricular repolarization.
|Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually over 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by an irregular rhythm is called tachyarrhythmia.
|An inherited blood disorder characterized by an abnormal form of hemoglobin.
|Platelets. A blood component helps to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.
|A low level of blood platelets. Platelet count < 150,000/ml
|High blood platelet count. Platelet count > 450,000/ml
|The formation and development of a blood clot in a blood vessel.
|The heart valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle.
|tricuspid valve regurgitation
|Back flow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium.
|Forced expiratory effort against a closed windpipe, impeding the return of venous blood to the heart.
|Enlarged, twisted veins.
|Pertaining to blood vessels.
|Inflammation of a blood vessel.
|Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
|Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
|The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
|The two venous trunks which returns blood to the heart. Inferior venae cavae receives blood from the lower body while superior venae cavae returns blood from the upper body..
|Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs.
|The two large heart chambers that receive blood from the atria and pump it out to the systemic and pulmonary circulatory systems.
|The uncoordinated, rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in the ventricles. This ventricular quivering prevents cardiac output. Can results in unconsciousness and death if not immediately treated.
|Rapid, unstable ventricular tachycardia (150-300 beats/min) with a large sine-wave appearance. If untreated, ventricular flutter typically progresses to ventricular fibrillation.
|Fast but regular heart rhythm originating in the ventricles. Often caused by heart disease, but may also occur in young people. Some medications and nonprescription decongestants can trigger ventricular tachycardia.
|venule (small vein in lungs)