Second Heart Sound: Fixed Splitting, Increased Aortic IntensityThis example shows a second heart sound (S2) with fixed splitting and an aortic component with increased intensity. This pattern is seen in the presence of long-standing severe hypertension where the pressure in the aorta is markedly increased. Once again, we are using fixed splitting of S2 to make it easier to concentrate on the relative intensities of the aortic and pulmonic component of S2. This condition is caused by essential hypertension. Note the increased thickness of the left ventricular wall.
The patient's position should be sitting.
Auscultation TipsS2:Fixed splitting, increased intensity of aortic component
Observe Cardiac Animation
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Authors and Sources
Authors and Reviewers
- ECG heart rhythm modules: Thomas O'Brien.
- ECG monitor simulation developer: Steve Collmann
12 Lead Course: Dr. Michael Mazzini, MD.
- Spanish language ECG: Breena R. Taira, MD, MPH
- Medical review: Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
- Medical review: Dr. Pedro Azevedo, MD, Cardiology
- Last Update: 11/8/2021
Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals, 5th Edition
Kathryn Booth and Thomas O'Brien
ISBN10: 1260064778, ISBN13: 9781260064773
McGraw Hill, 2019
Rapid Interpretation of EKG's, Sixth Edition
Cover Publishing Company
12 Lead EKG for Nurses: Simple Steps to Interpret Rhythms, Arrhythmias, Blocks, Hypertrophy, Infarcts, & Cardiac Drugs
Create Space Independent Publishing
Heart Sounds and Murmurs: A Practical Guide with Audio CD-ROM 3rd Edition
Elsevier-Health Sciences Division
Barbara A. Erickson, PhD, RN, CCRN
The Virtual Cardiac Patient: A Multimedia Guide to Heart Sounds, Murmurs, EKG
Jonathan Keroes, David Lieberman
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkin)
ISBN-10: 0781784425; ISBN-13: 978-0781784429
- Project Semilla, UCLA Emergency Medicine, EKG Training Breena R. Taira, MD, MPH
Second Heart Sound: Fixed Splitting, Increased Aortic Intensity | #47