Innocent MurmurThis is an example of an innocent murmur. This type of murmur is seen with non-cardiac conditions such as pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, exercise and anemia. When these are treated appropriately, the systolic murmur disappears. The murmur is heard in early systole, is of short duration and has a frequency range of 120Hz to 250Hz. It is best auscultated in the pulmonic area and increases in intensity with inspiration. It can be heard with either the bell or diaphragm. In this example S1 and S2 are normal. Diastole is silent. The short duration and mid-range frequency characterize an innocent murmur.
The patient's position should be supine.
Auscultation TipsSystole:Early, short duration murmur, increases with inspiration
Observe Cardiac Animation
Authors and Sources
Authors and Reviewers
- ECG heart rhythm modules: Thomas O'Brien.
- ECG monitor simulation developer: Steve Collmann
12 Lead Course: Dr. Michael Mazzini, MD.
- Spanish language ECG: Breena R. Taira, MD, MPH
- Medical review: Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
- Medical review: Dr. Pedro Azevedo, MD, Cardiology
- Last Update: 11/8/2021
Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals, 5th Edition
Kathryn Booth and Thomas O'Brien
ISBN10: 1260064778, ISBN13: 9781260064773
McGraw Hill, 2019
Rapid Interpretation of EKG's, Sixth Edition
Cover Publishing Company
12 Lead EKG for Nurses: Simple Steps to Interpret Rhythms, Arrhythmias, Blocks, Hypertrophy, Infarcts, & Cardiac Drugs
Create Space Independent Publishing
Heart Sounds and Murmurs: A Practical Guide with Audio CD-ROM 3rd Edition
Elsevier-Health Sciences Division
Barbara A. Erickson, PhD, RN, CCRN
The Virtual Cardiac Patient: A Multimedia Guide to Heart Sounds, Murmurs, EKG
Jonathan Keroes, David Lieberman
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkin)
ISBN-10: 0781784425; ISBN-13: 978-0781784429
- Project Semilla, UCLA Emergency Medicine, EKG Training Breena R. Taira, MD, MPH