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Fixed Splitting S2 Lesson

Virtual Auscultation

patient torso with stethoscope chestpiece

patient position during auscultation
The patient's position is supine.


This lesson and recording presents fixed splitting of the second heart sound. The S2 split is unchanged through inspiration and expiration at about sixty milliseconds.

Fixed S2 splitting is associated with acute pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary stenosis, and pulmonary emboli. Fixed splitting of the second heart sound along with murmurs can indicate the presence of an atrial septal defect, a congenital heart defect.

The murmurs have been eliminated in this recording so that you can concentrate on the fixed splitting of the second heart sound. In a later module you will hear the fixed splitting of S2 along with murmurs of atrial septal defect.


Heart Sounds Video

Authors and Sources

Authors and Reviewers


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