Fixed Splitting Second Heart Sound

Virtual Auscultation

patient torso with stethoscope chestpiece
patient position during auscultation

The patient's position should be supine.


When the separation of the two components of the second heart sound remains unchanged through inspiration, the split is called a fixed split.

The inability of the ventricles to change their volume with respiration causes the splitting. Fixed splitting of the second heart sound (along with murmurs) indicates the presence of heart disease or a heart defect.


Heart Sounds Video

Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD and David Lieberman, Developer, Virtual Cardiac Patient. Medically reviewed by Dr. Barbara Erickson, PhD, RN, CCRN. Last Update: 11/28/2021

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