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Second Heart Sound: Fixed Splitting, Increased Aortic Intensity

Virtual Auscultation

patient torso with stethoscope chestpiece
patient position during auscultation

The patient's position should be sitting.

Lesson

This example shows a second heart sound (S2) with fixed splitting and an aortic component with increased intensity. This pattern is seen in the presence of long-standing severe hypertension where the pressure in the aorta is markedly increased. Once again, we are using fixed splitting of S2 to make it easier to concentrate on the relative intensities of the aortic and pulmonic component of S2. This condition is caused by essential hypertension. Note the increased thickness of the left ventricular wall.

Waveform





Heart Sounds Video



Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD and David Lieberman, Developer, Virtual Cardiac Patient. Medically reviewed by Dr. Barbara Erickson, PhD, RN, CCRN. Last Update: 11/28/2021


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