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Medical TermDescription
-masesischewing, mastication
-osea carbohydrate
-posiadrinking, fluid intake
-tresiaperforation, opening
-trophicfood, nutrition
AADantibiotic associated diarrhea
alimentary canalThe passage for the digestion and absorption of food. Extends from mouth to anus.
anastomosisA surgical connection between two structures.
antidiarrhealA drug or food for treating diarrhea.
ascitesAbnormal accumulation of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
ascorbic acidA water soluble compound. As vitamin C, it naturally occurs in citrus fruits and many vegetables.
aspartameArtificial sweeter, metabolized as phenylalanine and aspartic acid.
bariatric surgerySurgical procedures aimed at producing major weight reduction in patients with morbid obesity.
biliaryPertaining to bile, the gall bladder or bile ducts.
bilirubinThe orange-yellow pigment of bile.
biotinA water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
BMbowel movement
BMIbody mass index
bolusA soft mass of chewed food ready to be swallowed.
botulismA rare, but potentially fatal form of food poisoning caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
cachexiaGeneral ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
CAHchronic active hepatitis
Callarge calorie
cardiaThat part of the stomach close to the opening from esophagus into the stomach. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the heart.
cec/ocecum, first section of colon
cholangi/obile vessel
choledoch/ocommon bile duct
CUCchronic ulcerative colitis
D&Vdiarrhea & vomiting
dieteticPertaining to food and nutrition.
diverticulosisThe presence of multiple pouches, usually in the colonic or gastric wall.
DREdigital rectal examination
duodenitisInflammation of the duodenum section of the small intestine.
duodenumThe proximal (first) portion of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.
dysenteryAcute inflammation of the intestine marked by frequent watery stools, often with blood and by pain, fever, and dehydration.
EGFepidermal growth factor
electrolyteA substances that dissociates into two or more ions and can then conduct an electric current.
eliminationRemoval of waste products from the body.
enteritisInflammation of any segment of the small intestine.
epiglott/oepiglottis (cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea)
ERCPendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
eructationTo belch.
eustachian tubeA narrow canal extending from the middle ear to the pharynx.
flatulenceProduction of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
gastroenterologyA subspecialty of medicine concerned with diseases of the digestive system and related structures including the esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
gavageForced feeding a patient especially through a tube passed into the stomach
GERDgastroesophageal reflux disease
glycemic indexA numerical system of measuring the rate of blood glucose generation from a particular food item.
HAVhepatitis A virus
HBVhepatitis B virus
HCVhepatitis C virus
HDVhepatitis D
hematemesisVomiting blood.
hepatomegalyHaving an enlarged liver.
hyperemesis gravidarumSevere, intractable vomiting during early pregnancy. Often needs IV fluids and anti nausea agents.
IBDinflammatory bowel disease
IBSirritable bowel syndrome
IBWideal body weight
jejun/ojejunum (second part of the small intestines)
labial mucosaThe inner lining of the lips.
lactic acidA organic acid produced by anaerobic respiration, by fermentation of carbohydrates in the rumen and by bacterial action on milk.
lactoseThe main sugar of milk consisting of one molecule each of glucose and galactose.
LFTliver function test
LGIlower gastrointestinal
masticationThe process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
melenaThe black, tarry, foul-smelling feces that contain degraded blood.
meli-honey, sugar
mesenteryA double layer of peritoneum that encloses the intestines and attaches them to the posterior abdominal wall.
N&Vnausea and vomiting
nutri/oto nourish
oral hygieneThe practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
PEGpercutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
peritone/operitoneum (serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity)
prebioticsIndigestible food ingredients that promote overall health by supporting the activity of probiotic bacteria in the large intestine.
PUDpeptic ulcer disease
RDArecommended daily/dietary allowance
salivary ductsAny of the ducts which transport saliva.
salmonellaA genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. It causes food poisoning, enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia.
SBsmall bowel
SBOsmall bowel obstruction
scurvyAn acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C, characterized by spongy, bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, and extreme weakness.
sialaden/osalivary gland
sigmoidThe distal part of the colon from the level of the iliac crest to the rectum.
sigmold/osigmoid colon
sito-bread, food
stomach ulcerUlceration of the gastric mucosa due to contact with gastric juice.
sucroseCane or beet sugar.
TPNtotal parenteral nutrition
typhoid feverAn acute bacterial infection transmitted by contaminated water, milk or other foods, especially shellfish.
uran/ohard palate
weaningThe replacement of mother's milk in the diet of a young child with other food.
wheyThe liquid components of milk that remain after the casein, fat, and fat soluble components have been removed.

Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Barbara A. Erickson
Medically reviewed by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
Last Update: 12/18/2022

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