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Body System: URINARY

ablation: Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, freezing or other methods.

anuria: Absence of urine formation.

ARF: acute renal failure

-atresia: closure, occlusion

azot/o: nitrogen

bladder: A hollow, expandable muscular sac that stores urine produced by the kidneys until excretion.

blood urea nitrogen: A measure of the concentration of urea in the blood

BUN: blood urea nitrogen

calcul/o: stone

cali/o: calyx

cupr/o: copper

cyst/o: urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid

cystitis: Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

cystocele: A prolapse of the bladder into the vagina.

dia-: complete, through

dialysis: A therapeutic procedure used in patients with kidney failure for removal of harmful wastes and fluids from the blood.

diuresis: Increased excretion of urine.

dysuria: Painful or difficult urination.

-ectasis: dilation, stretching

endometrium: The mucous membrane comprising the inner layer of the uterine wall.

enuresis: Involuntary discharge of urine after completed development of urinary control.

epispadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the urethra.

ERBF: effective renal blood flow

ESRD: end-stage renal disease

GFR: glomerular filtration rate

glomerul/o: glomerulus

glomerulus: A small tuft of blood capillaries in the kidney that is an integral part of the nephron, the basic unit of the kidney.

glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally amount of glucose in the urine.

GU: genitourinary

hematuria: Red blood cells in the urine.

hemodialysis: A therapeutic procedure used with kidney failure involving removal of harmful wastes and fluids from the blood.

hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement of a kidney, sometimes caused by blockage of the ureter.

hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of calcium in the urine.

hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, usually due to acute renal failure.

hyperoxaluria: Abnormally high amounts of oxalates in the urine.

hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the urethra in which the urethral opening is below its normal location.

ileal: Of or pertaining to the ileum.

incontinence: The inability to control the flow of urine from the bladder.

intermittency: A urinary tract disorder in which urine flow is not continuous but stops and starts.

interstitial cystitis: Painful bladder syndrome.

IVP: intravenous pyelogram

ketonuria: Presence of ketone bodies in urine.

kidney: One of a pair of organs that filter blood for the secretion of urine and that regulates ion concentrations.

KUB: kidney, ureter, and bladder

lith/o: stone, calcification

-lithotomy: incision for stone removal

lymphuria: The presence of lymph in urine.

methenamine: An antibacterial compound most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

nephr/o: kidney

nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the kidney.

nephrolithiasis: Formation of kidney stones.

nephrology: A subspecialty of medicine concerned with the kidney.

nephron: Very small filtering structures in the kidneys.

nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the kidney due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue. Usually caused by chronic hypertension.

nephrosis: Any degenerative disease of the kidney.

nephrotic syndrome: Disease of the kidney without inflammatory or neoplastic components.

nocturia: Patient needs to wake at night to pass urine.

nocturnal enuresis: Involuntary discharge of urine during sleep at night after expected age of completed development of urinary control.

NPN: nonprotein nitrogen

oliguria: Decreased urinary output.

perinephritis: Inflammation of the connective and adipose tissues surrounding the KIDNEY.

peritoneal dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity.

-pexy: surgical fixation

PKU: phenylketonuria

polycystic kidney disease: An inherited disease in which cysts develop within the kidneys.

polyuria: Excessive production of urine.

prostatism: Lower urinary tract symptom, such as slow urinary stream, associated with prostatic hyperplasia in older men.

prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland.

pyel/o: renal pelvis

pyelectasis: Dilation of the pelvis of the kidney.

pyelitis: Inflammation of the renal pelvis.

pyelocystitis: Inflammation of the kidney pelvis and the urinary bladder.

pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the kidney involving the renal parenchyma (the nephrons), kidney pelvis and kidney calices. It is characterized by abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting and occasionally diarrhea.

pyonephrosis: Distention of kidney with the presence of pus and destruction of the renal parenchyma. It is often associated with renal obstruction and can lead to total or nearly total loss of renal function.

pyuria: White blood cells or pus cells in the urine.

ren/o: kidney

-tripsy: to crush

UA: urinalysis

ur/o: urine

urea: A compound formed in the liver which is the major nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism

uremia: Presence of excessive amounts of urea in the blood. May be a sign of renal disease or failure.

-uresis: urination

ureter: One of a pair of tubes that transports urine from the kidney pelvis to the urinary bladder.

ureter/o: ureter

ureteral: Pertaining to the ureter.

ureterocele: A cystic dilatation of the end of a ureter as it enters into the urinary bladder. It may obstruct urine flow.

ureterolithiasis: Formation of stones in the ureter.

ureterostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening in the ureter for external drainage of the urine.

urethr/o: urethra

urethra: A tube that transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for sperm.

urethral: Pertaining to the urethra.

urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra, causing painful and difficult urination.

-uria: urination

urin/o: urine, urinary system

urinalysis: Laboratory analysis of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means.

urinary bladder: A muscular, membranous sac along the urinary tract that store urine until urination.

urinary catheters: Catheters inserted into the urinary bladder or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.

urinary fistula: An abnormal passage in any part of the urinary tract between itself or with other organs.

urination: Discharge of urine from the body.

urine: The fluid containing waste products and water secreted by the kidneys, then stored in the urinary bladder until urination.

urochesia: Passage of urine through the rectum.

urolith: A stone in the urinary tract.

urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the urinary tract, usually in the kidney, urinary bladder or the ureter.

urologic: Pertaining to urology.

urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male.

urothelium: The epithelial lining of the urinary tract.

UTI: urinary tract infection

vesic/o: bladder, blister

vesicul/o: vesicle

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