abduction: Movement of a limb away from the midline or axis of the body.
achilles tendon: The tendon connecting the muscles in the back of the calf to the calcaneus (heel bone).
actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and myosin occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
adduction: Movement of a limb toward the midline or axis of the body
adductor: A muscle that moves a body part toward the midline or axis of the body.
adhesion: Bands of scar tissue that can develop after surgery.
ADL: activities of daily living
aerobics: Sustained strenuous exercise that improves cardiovascular and respiratory fitness.
anconeus: A small triangular muscle behind the elbow. Its function is to extend the forearm.
antispasmodic: A drug used to treat smooth muscle spasms in the digestive system, uterus or urinary tract.
anxiety disorders: A group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear.
astasia: The inability, without physical cause, to stand or sit without assistance.
ataxia: Inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements, not due to muscle weakness.
atonic: Without normal muscle tone or strength
atrophy: Diminished size or wasting away of body tissue, for example muscles.
baclofen: A muscle relaxing drug.
ballism: Abnormal involuntary movements of the limbs.
biceps: A muscle having two heads. Commonly used to refer to the muscles that extend from the shoulder joint to the elbow.
bradykinesia: Abnormally slow body movement.
buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or hip consisting of gluteal muscles and fat.
carpal tunnel syndrome: A common source of hand numbness and pain. Can be associated with repetitive occupational trauma, wrist injuries, rheumatoid arthritis, and pregnancy.
chronic fatigue syndrome: A debilitating disorder characterized by extreme fatigue or tiredness that doesn't go away with rest.
circumduction: A conical movement of a limb extending from the joint.
contracture: A condition that occurs when normally elastic tissues are replaced by inelastic fiber-like tissue.
cool down: Gradually decreasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature after exercise.
dantrolene: Muscle relaxant drug.
deltoid: Thick triangular muscle in the shoulder whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm.
dorsiflexion: The movement of the ankle joint that brings the dorsal (top region) of the foot towards the shin.
DTR: deep tendon reflex
dyskinesia: Involuntary muscle movements of the face, trunk, neck and extremities and difficulty with voluntary movements. Often associated with the use of certain medications.
dystonia: A disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause slow repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
dystrophy: Any abnormal condition caused by defective nutrition
electromyography: A test of the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles.
EOM: extraocular muscles
epicondylitis: Tennis elbow. Occurs from partial or complete tears of the tendons of the forearm, or from overuse, a strain.
epimysium: The fibrous connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle.
ergo-: work, energy
ergonomics: Design work that reduces stress and eliminates injuries associated with the overuse of muscles, bad posture and repeated tasks.
extensor: Any muscle that extends a limb or other body part.
fasci/o: fascia (layer of fibrous tissue)
fasciitis: Inflammation of the fascia, which is the connective tissue surrounding muscles, blood vessels and nerves.
fibromyalgia: A common, chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain, diffuse tenderness, chronic fatigue, and other symptoms.
flexor: Any muscle that causes a limb to bend.
ganglion cyst: Swelling or tumor on a joint or tendon sheath due to trauma.
heel spur: A bony outgrowth on the lower surface of the heel bone.
hemiparesis: Weakness or paralysis of the entire left or right side of the body. Caused by congenital conditions, trauma, stroke or tumors.
hemiplegia: Paralysis of one side of the body.
hernia: Abnormal protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained.
hyperkinesia: Spontaneous involuntary movements.
hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body.
hypotonia: Poor muscle tone usually detected at birth or during infancy. It is reflected in the APGAR score.
impingement syndrome: The result of chronic and repetitive compression of the rotator-cuff tendons in the shoulder.
intermittent claudication: Muscle pain caused by too little blood flow, usually during exercise.
intrinsic muscle: A muscle whose origin and insertion are both in the same part or organ.
isotonic contraction: Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.
leiomy/o: smooth (visceral) muscle
masseter muscle: The thick rectangular muscle in the cheek that functions to close the jaw.
MD: muscular dystrophy
muscular dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited myopathies, characterized by wasting and weakness of the skeletal muscle.
muscular dystrophy: A group of over thirty genetic diseases characterized by progressive degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement.
myalgia: Muscle pain.
myasthenia gravis: A chronic autoimmune disease characterized by weakness of the skeletal muscles.
myocele: Protrusion of muscle substance through a hole in its sheath
myoclonus: Sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle.
myofascial release: Physical therapy used to treat chronic pain in the tissues that surround and support muscles.
myogenic: Originating in the muscles.
myolysis: Breakdown of muscle tissue.
myoma: A benign neoplasm of the muscles.
myoparesis: Slight muscle paralysis.
myorrhaphy: Suture of muscle tissue or a muscle wound.
myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
myotonia: Tonic muscle spasm or muscular rigidity.
myotonic: Pertaining to muscle tone.
neuromuscular: Disorders that affect the nerves that control voluntary muscles.
NMJ: neuromuscular junction
nocturnal myoclonus: A sleep disorder where the patient moves involuntarily during sleep. Also called periodic limb movement disorder.
oblique: A slanting direction.
obturator muscle: Either of the two muscles that cover the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis, responsible for rotating the thighs outward.
paralysis: Loss of muscle function.
paraplegia: Paralysis affecting the legs.
pectoral: Relating to the thorax.
pectus carinatum: The chest or breast.
pelvic floor: The connective tissues and muscles that lie beneath and support the perineum and pelvis. It extends between the pubic bone anteriorly and the coccyx posteriorly.
physiatrist: A doctor specializing in the physiological treatment of patients with conditions affecting movement. Often used in stroke rehabilitation.
plantar fasciitis: Irritation of the connective tissue that runs from the heel to the base of the toes. Also known as :postman's heel".
polymyositis: Inflammation of the muscles or associated tissues, such as the blood vessels that supply the muscles
pronation: The inward roll of the foot (medial malleolus) while walking or running.
-pterygium: abnormality of conjunctiva
pyomyositis: An acute, intramuscular suppuration of the large skeletal muscle groups.
quadriceps muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh.
quadriplegia: Paralysis that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso.
rhabdomy/o: striated muscle
rhabdomyoma: A rare, benign neoplasm derived from striated muscle.
rhabdomyosarcoma: Malignant neoplasm derived from skeletal (striated) muscle.
RICE: rest, ice, compression, elevation
rotator cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the shoulder joint about its longitudinal axis.
RSI: repetitive stress injury
sarcocystosis: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus Sarcocystis. Often asymptomatic, but symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis.
sarcopenia: A disease associated with aging resulting in loss of muscle mass and strength.
sartorius: The thin, long, diagonal, strap-like anterior thigh muscle extending from the pelvis to the calf of the leg.
shin splint: Inflammation of the muscles, tendons, and bone tissue around the tibia.
shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles due to cold or fear.
soleus: A flat, broad muscle in the calf of the leg.
spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles.
spasmodic torticollis: A very painful condition in which neck muscles contract involuntarily causing the head to twist, bend or rotate to one side.
sphincter: A ring-link muscle that constrictions a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as needed. Present in the rectum and urinary tract.
sprain: An injury caused by tearing of the fibers of a ligament.
strain: Overstretching or overexertion of a part of the musculature.
-stroma: connective or supportive tissue of an organ
tax/o: order, coordination
tendinous: Relating to tendons.
tensor: Any muscle that causes stretching or tension of a body part.
tetany: A disorder consisting of muscle spasms, cramps and twitching. Tetany usually results from hypocalcemia.
tibialis: The of two muscles in the leg that extend from the tibia to the metatarsal bones of the foot.
ton/o: tension, tone
tonic: Pertaining to normal muscle tone.
tremor: Involuntary shaking, quivering of body parts, commonly the extremities.
triceps: Muscle with three heads, particularly the muscle on the back of the upper arm that contracts to extend the forearm.