AC: adrenal cortex
acr/o: extremities, top
acromegaly: A hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone.
ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone
Addison disease: A rare disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol and/or aldosterone.
ADH: antidiuretic hormone
adren/o: adrenal glands
adrenalectomy: Surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.
adrenalitis: Inflammation of the adrenal glands,
albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of kidney diseases.
aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that acts on the kidneys to regulate electrolyte and water balance.
aldosteronism: A disease that causes the adrenals to produce too much of the hormone aldosterone.
allopurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor that decreases uric acid production. Used to treat gout and kidney stones.
antidiabetic: Drugs that help control diabetes mellitus.
antidiuretic hormone: A hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. This hormone controls the amount of water excreted in the urine.
AODM: adult-onset diabetes mellitus
bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic.
blood glucose: The concentration of glucose in the blood. Also called blood sugar. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.
blood sugar: The concentration of glucose in the blood. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.
calcitonin: A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. It helps regulate calcium levels.
Conn syndrome: Associated with increased secretion of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands.
cortic/o: cortex, outer section
cortisol: The primary stress hormone.
cretinism: A congenital condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone.
-crine: to secrete
Cushing syndrome: A condition when abnormally high levels of a hormone called cortisol are present.
DI: diabetes insipidus
diabetes insipidus: A hormonal condition that causes the individual to have excessive and frequent urination. Inadequate ADH secretion.
diabetes mellitus: A grouping of diseases that affect how the body uses glucose. Type I is lack of insulin, Type II is insulin resistance.
diabetic retinopathy: The most common diabetic eye disease. It occurs when blood vessels in the retina are damaged. Leading cause of blindness in working age adults.
DKA: diabetic ketoacidosis
DM: diabetes mellitus
electrolytes: Minerals in the blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge.
endocrine system: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system.
endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the endocrine system.
epinephrine: A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Commonly called adrenaline.
estrogen: Hormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development in females.
exophthalmos: A bulging eyeball, associated with hyperthyroidism.
FBS: fasting blood sugar
follicle-stimulating hormone: A hormone released by the pituitary gland. It regulates the development, maturation and reproductive processes of the body.
FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone
GH: growth hormone
gigantism: Abnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone during childhood.
glucagon: A peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that opposes insulin.
gluco-: relating to glucose
glucose: Sugar in the blood that supplies energy to cells.
glyc/o: glucose, sugar
GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone
goiter: Enlargement of the thyroid gland causing a swelling in the front part of the neck.
Graves disease: An immune disease that causes hyperthyroidism.
GTT: glucose tolerance test
gynecomastia: Non-cancerous swelling of the breast tissue in males due to an imbalance of hormones. Common in pre-adolescence, benign and self-limiting.
HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin
HGF: human growth factor
hypercalcemia: Too much calcium in the blood.
hyperglycemia: High blood sugar. A serious problem for diabetics.
hyperinsulinism: Abnormally high levels of insulin in the blood.
hyperpituitarism: Excessive hormone production by the pituitary gland.
hyperthyroidism: Excessive hormone production by the thyroid.
hyperthyroxinemia: Abnormally elevated thyroxine level in the blood.
hypoglycemia: Abnormally low blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, usually less than 70 mg/dl.
ICSH: interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
IGT: impaired glucose tolerance
insulin: A hormone produced in the pancreas. Regulates glucose levels.
insulinoma: A neoplasm of the pancreas that is one of the chief causes of hypoglycemia.
JOD: juvenile onset diabetes
laparoscopy: Surgery using a thin light tube inserted into a small incision.
leptin: A hormone that regulates energy balance by helping control appetite.
LH: luteinizing hormone
luteinizing hormone: A hormone released by the pituitary gland. It stimulates the secretion of sex hormones by the ovary and the testes and is involved in the maturation of spermatozoa and ova.
melatonin: A hormone produced by the pineal gland. It plays a role in the regulation of sleep, mood, and reproduction.
MSH: melanocyte stimulating hormone
NIDDM: noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
norepinephrine: A neurotransmitter that is secreted in response to stress, increasing blood pressure and glucose.
oxytocin: A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It simulates contraction during labor and the production of milk.
pancreatitis: Inflammation in the pancreas.
parathyroidectomy: Surgical removal of one or more parathyroid glands.
pituitary adenoma: Benign epithelia neoplasm of the pituitary.
pituitary gland: A small, oval, unpaired, endocrine gland connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk which is called the infundibulum. Its secretions control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation.
polydipsia: Excessive thirst.
polyphagia: Excessive hunger or appetite.
prediabetes: A condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal. Considered a warning sign for diabetes.
progesterone: A sex hormone produced by the ovaries.
prolactinoma: A begin tumor of the pituitary gland overproduces a hormone called prolactin.
PTH: parathyroid hormone
puberty: Becoming first capable of reproducing sexually.
SIADH: syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone
somatotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells which produce growth hormone.
steroids: A hormone produced by the body. Also a drug used for treating swelling or to (illegally) improve athletic performance.
testosterone: A hormone produced by the testicles. Responsible for maintaining muscle mass, bone density and sex drive.
thym/o: thymus gland
thymosin: A hormone secreted by the thymus.
thyr/o: thyroid gland
thyroid: A highly vascularized endocrine gland that regulates metabolism. It consists of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the trachea.
thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland.
thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
thyroxine: A hormone of the thyroid gland that stimulates the consumption of oxygen.
TSH: thyroid-stimulating hormone
vipoma: An endocrine tumor that secretes vasoactive intestinal peptide, that causes vasodilation, relaxation of smooth muscles, watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and hypochlorhydria.