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Medical TermDescription
-agrasevere pain
-crasiamixture, loss of control
-noiamind, will
-praxiato perform, action
-taxiaordering, arrangement
acupunctureTherapy for treating pain and disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
ADAlzheimer disease
ADDattention deficit disorder
ADHDattention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
agnosiaThe inability to comprehend or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation.
alexiaInability to read despite preservation of the ability to write. The patient cannot recognize letters and words.
amnesiaLoss of memory due to brain injury or emotional trauma.
analgesiaWithout pain or decreased pain.
anesthesiaThe loss of feeling or sensation, particularly pain.
angerA strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
anticonvulsantsDrugs used to prevent seizures or reduce their severity.
antidepressantsDrugs that prevent or relieve depression.
apathyLack of emotion or emotional expression; disinterest.
aptitude testsStandardized tests designed to predict an individual's learning ability or performance.
asperger syndromeA developmental disorder whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social interactions, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities and impairment in language and communications skills.
atelo-incomplete, imperfect
avoidanceA psychological or physical defense mechanism for avoiding a noxious experience.
BACblood alcohol concentration
barbiturateA sedative that depresses respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature and the central nervous system.
CBTcognitive behavioral therapy
CNScentral nervous system
CPcerebral palsy
CRconditioned reflex
CSFcerebrospinal fluid
CVAcerebrovascular accident
dendriteShort branches of the nerve cell body that receive stimuli from other neurons.
diplegiaParalysis involving both sides of the body.
dopamineA central nervous system neurotransmitter.
DTsdelirium tremens
ECTelectroconvulsive therapy
epiduralOn or over the dura mater.
ESTelectroshock therapy
ICPintracranial pressure
IQintelligence quotient
LOClevel/loss of consciousness
log-speech, words
logo-words, speech
LPlumbar puncture
MAmental age
MBDminimal brain dysfunction
megalomaniaDelusions of grandeur or exaggerated personal importance, wealth or power.
MSmultiple sclerosis
myelinA white fatty material that encloses certain axons and nerve fibers acting as an electrical insulator.
neurapraxiaA peripheral nerve injury marked by a temporary loss of conduction of impulses.
neurastheniaA mental disorder characterized by chronic fatigue and concomitant physiologic symptoms.
neurofibromaA moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of Schwann cells and fibroblasts that includes portions of nerve fibers.
neurofibrosarcomaA malignant tumor that arises from small cutaneous nerves, is locally aggressive, and has a potential for metastasis.
neurogenesisFormation of neurons which involves the differentiation and division of stem cells in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
neurogliaThe supportive tissue of the nervous system
neuromaA benign neoplasm composed of nerve cells and nerve fibers.
NGFnerve growth factor
NTDneural tube defect
OCDobsessive-compulsive disorder
olfactory nerveThe first cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell.
paranoid behaviorBehavior exhibited by individuals who are overly suspicious, but without the symptoms characteristic of paranoid personality disorder or schizophrenia.
paranoid disordersChronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system, but with clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
parietal lobeUpper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the occipital lobe, and superior to the temporal lobes.
PDParkinson disease
phob/ofear, adversion
PNIperipheral nerve injury
PNSperipheral nervous system
PTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
radial nerveA major nerve of the upper extremity, originating in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord, traveling via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supplying motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
REMrapid eye movement
rem sleepA stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
RINDreversible ischemic neurologic deficit
SADseasonal affective disorder
stressThe unfavorable effect of environmental factors on the physiological functions.
superegoThe component of the personality associated with ethics, standards, and self-criticism.
synaps/opoint of contact
synapseThe junctional area between two connected nerves or between a nerve and the effector organ.
syring/otube, pipe, fistula
temporal lobeOne of the main divisions of the cerebral cortex in each hemisphere of the brain, responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing.
TENStranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
tephr/ogray, ash-colored
tetanusAn acute, potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by a powerful protein toxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Also called lockjaw.
thalamusPaired bodies containing mostly gray matter and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain.
thec-case, sheath
TIAtransient ischemic attack
tractotomySurgical incision of a nerve tract, usually to relieve pain.
transferenceThe unconscious transfer to others of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures in one's early life.
vagus nerveThe tenth cranial nerve.

Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Barbara A. Erickson
Medically reviewed by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
Last Update: 12/18/2022

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