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Medical TermDescription
-crineto secrete
acr/oextremities, top
acromegalyA hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone.
adren/oadrenal glands
adrenalectomySurgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.
adrenalitisInflammation of the adrenal glands,
aldosteronismA disease that causes the adrenals to produce too much of the hormone aldosterone.
antidiuretic hormoneA hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. This hormone controls the amount of water excreted in the urine.
blood glucoseThe concentration of glucose in the blood. Also called blood sugar. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.
blood sugarThe concentration of glucose in the blood. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.
calcitoninA hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. It helps regulate calcium levels.
cortic/ocortex, outer section
cortisolThe primary stress hormone.
cretinismA congenital condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone.
Cushing syndromeA condition when abnormally high levels of a hormone called cortisol are present.
diabetes insipidusA hormonal condition that causes the individual to have excessive and frequent urination. Inadequate ADH secretion.
diabetes mellitusA grouping of diseases that affect how the body uses glucose. Type I is lack of insulin, Type II is insulin resistance.
diabetic retinopathyThe most common diabetic eye disease. It occurs when blood vessels in the retina are damaged. Leading cause of blindness in working age adults.
electrolytesMinerals in the blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge.
endocrine systemThe system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system.
epinephrineA hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Commonly called adrenaline.
estrogenHormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development in females.
exophthalmosA bulging eyeball, associated with hyperthyroidism.
follicle-stimulating hormoneA hormone released by the pituitary gland. It regulates the development, maturation and reproductive processes of the body.
gigantismAbnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone during childhood.
glucagonA peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that opposes insulin.
glucoseSugar in the blood that supplies energy to cells.
glyc/oglucose, sugar
hypercalcemiaToo much calcium in the blood.
hyperglycemiaHigh blood sugar. A serious problem for diabetics.
hyperinsulinismAbnormally high levels of insulin in the blood.
hyperpituitarismExcessive hormone production by the pituitary gland.
hyperthyroidismExcessive hormone production by the thyroid.
hypoglycemiaAbnormally low blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, usually less than 70 mg/dl.
insulinA hormone produced in the pancreas. Regulates glucose levels.
insulinomaA neoplasm of the pancreas that is one of the chief causes of hypoglycemia.
laparoscopySurgery using a thin light tube inserted into a small incision.
leptinA hormone that regulates energy balance by helping control appetite.
luteinizing hormoneA hormone released by the pituitary gland. It stimulates the secretion of sex hormones by the ovary and the testes and is involved in the maturation of spermatozoa and ova.
norepinephrineA neurotransmitter that is secreted in response to stress, increasing blood pressure and glucose.
oxytocinA hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It simulates contraction during labor and the production of milk.
pancreatitisInflammation in the pancreas.
polydipsiaExcessive thirst.
polyphagiaExcessive hunger or appetite.
prediabetesA condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal. Considered a warning sign for diabetes.
prolactinomaA begin tumor of the pituitary gland overproduces a hormone called prolactin.
pubertyBecoming first capable of reproducing sexually.
steroidsA hormone produced by the body. Also a drug used for treating swelling or to (illegally) improve athletic performance.
testosteroneA hormone produced by the testicles. Responsible for maintaining muscle mass, bone density and sex drive.
thym/othymus gland
thymosinA hormone secreted by the thymus.
thyr/othyroid gland
thyroxineA hormone of the thyroid gland that stimulates the consumption of oxygen.

Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Barbara A. Erickson
Medically reviewed by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
Last Update: 12/18/2022

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