Number of skeletal-iii flashcards: 129
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Medical TermDescription
achondroplasiaA disorder that is a form of short-limb dwarfism.
acid etchingPreparation of tooth surfaces with etching agents, such as phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion.
acromioclavicular jointThe gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the clavicle and the inner margin of the acromion process of the scapula. This joint has six ligaments.
acromionThe lateral extension of the spine of the scapula and the highest point of the shoulder.
anodontiaCongenital absence of most or all teeth.
anterior cruciate ligamentA strong ligament of the knee that extends from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the posterior part of the medial surface of the lateral condyle of the femur. Responsible for controlling stability during knee rotation.
apophysisAn outgrowth or projection from a bone.
arthrocentesisAspiration of fluid (e.g., synovial fluid) from a joint cavity.
arthrographyImaging of a joint, usually after injection of a contrast medium.
articulationThe junction of two or more bones. Also, forming sounds into meaningful speech.
auranofinA drug for treating rheumatoid arthritis.
bicuspidA premolar tooth used for grinding food.
bregmaThe juncture of the coronal and sagittal sutures on the top of the cranium.
bruxismA disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.
bunionAn area of thick tissue over the metatarsal phalangeal joint at the base of the great toe.
bursitisInflammation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.
calcaneusThe largest of the tarsal bones, situated at the lower and back part of the foot, forming the heel.
capsulitisInflammation of the capsule surrounding a joint.
cartilageA non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of chondrocytes embedded in a matrix. There are three major types: hyaline cartilage; fibrocartilage; and elastic cartilage.
cephalicCranial. Relating to the head.
cerclageBinding together the ends of an oblique bone fracture or the chips of a broken patella.
cervicalPertaining to the neck.
chondralPertaining to cartilage.
chondrocytePolymorphic cells that form cartilage.
chondrogenesisThe development of cartilage.
chondrosarcomaA slowly growing malignant neoplasm of cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones, scapula or in long bones.
clubfootA congenital deformed foot in which the patient cannot stand with sole flat on the ground.
collagenA fibrous protein comprising about one third of the total protein in the body. It is a main constituent of skin, bone, ligaments and cartilage.
cranialaPertaining to the cranium.
cubitalPertaining to the elbow or forearm.
dactylitisPainful inflammation of the fingers or toes.
dentinThe main material of teeth. It is surrounded by pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root.
dislocationDisplacement of a body part from its normal position. Commonly used to refer to a bone displaced from a joint.
elbow jointA hinge joint connecting the forearm to the arm.
enarthrosisA ball and socket joint.
endomorphA body type that is relatively soft and round.
epineuralOn a neural arch of a vertebra.
exoskeleton The exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals.
exostosesAbnormal bony outgrowth from the surface of a bone
genu varumAn outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together.
glenoid cavityA depression in the lateral angle of the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus.
globusA sphere. A spherical structure.
hipThe region of the body around the joint between the top of the femur and side of the pelvis.
humerusThe bone of the upper arm. It extends from the shoulder joint to the elbow joint.
hyperostosisAbnormal thickening or growth of bone.
iliumThe largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
ischiumThe inferior, dorsal portion of the hip bone.
jawBony structure of the mouth consisting of the mandible and the maxilla.
lacunaA small cavity or depression.
macrocephalyAbnormally large head.
malocclusionFaulty contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is closed.
malunionFaulty alignment of broken bone fragments.
mandibleThe large, u-shaped bone that supports the lower teeth, forming the lower jaw.
maxillofacialPertaining to the jaws and face.
mediastinalPertaining to a median septum or space between two parts of the body.
meniscusCrescent-shaped cartilage inside the knee joint that absorb shock and stabilize the joint.
metatarsal bonesThe five long bones of the metatarsus, articulating with the tarsal bones proximally and the phalanges of toes distally.
metatarsalgiaPain in the region of the metatarsus.
metatarsusThe part of the foot between the tarsus and the toes.
microdontiaAbnormally small teeth.
micrognathismAbnormally small jaw.
molarThe most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw which are used for grinding.
nasionA point on the skull where the top of the nose meets the ridge of the forehead.
occipital boneThe curved, shield-shaped bone forming the lower rear part of the skull, enclosing the foramen magnum.
odontogenesisThe process of tooth development.
oligodontiaAbsence of some teeth.
oppositionRelation of the position of the thumb to the other fingers.
orthotic devicesA device used to support, align, or correct deformities of movable parts of the body.
osseousComposed of or resembling bone.
osteoblastomaA benign, painful, vascular tumor of bone marked by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue.
osteochondritisInflammation of a bone and its overlaying cartilage.
osteochondrosisAny of a group of disorders of the growth ossification centers in children
osteocytesMature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the bone matrix.
osteogenesisThe process of bone formation.
osteologyThe science that studies the structure and function of bones.
osteolysisDissolution of bone.
osteomaA benign, slow growing tumor composed of bone tissue.
osteophyteBony projection usually found around joints and often seen in arthritis.
palateThe structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate and the posterior soft palate.
paratenonThe fatty or synovial tissue between a tendon and its sheath.
parietal boneOne of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the frontal bone and occipital bone, which together form the sides of the cranium.
periarthritisInflammation of the tissues around a joint capsule.
periosteumThick, fibrous membrane covering the surface of a bone except its articular cartilage and areas where it attaches to tendons and ligaments.
periostitisInflammation of the periosteum.
phalangitisInflammation of a finger or toe.
plagiocephalyThe condition characterized an irregular shape of the head often in parallelogram shape with a flat spot on the back or one side of the head.
platybasiaA malformation of the cranium so that the floor of the posterior cranial fossa bulges upward in the region about the foramen magnum.
polyarthritisSimultaneous inflammation of several joints.
polychondritisInflammation of cartilage.
polydactylyA congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, characterized by supernumerary digits.
poplitealPertaining to the area behind the knee.
precordiumThe region of the thorax immediately over the heart.
pseudarthrosisA new, false, fibrous joint arising at the site of an ununited fracture.
psoriatic arthritisArthritis associated with psoriasis, affecting joints and the spine.
pubic symphysisA slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.
pyarthrosisAcute inflammation of synovial membranes.
rheumatic diseasesDisorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
ribsThe flat, curved bones that form a protective cage for the chest organs, consisting of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage.
sacroiliitisInflammation of the sacroiliac joint, marked by lower back pain, fever, uveitis, psoriasis and decreased range of motion.
scaphoid boneThe bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of carpal bones.
scapulaThe flat triangular bone in the back of the shoulder. Also called the shoulder blade.
sesamoidDenoting a small nodular bone embedded in a tendon or joint capsule and that slides over another bony surface. The patella is a sesamoid bone.
shoulder dislocationDisplacement of the humerus from the scapula.
skullThe skeleton of the head including the facial bones and the bones enclosing the brain.
slingA bandage that supports an injured limb.
spondylitisInflammation of the synovial joints of the backbone.
spondylolisthesisForward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.
spondylosisA degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the vertebra, the intervertebral disk, and the surrounding soft tissue.
sternoclavicular jointA double gliding joint formed by the clavicle, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sternum at the clavicular notch and the cartilage of the first rib.
subtalar jointFormed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.
talusThe second largest of the tarsal bones, articulating with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint.
tarsal bonesThe seven bones which form the tarsus: calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
tarsal jointsThe articulations between the various tarsal bones.
tarsalgiaPain in the foot.
tarsusThe bones of the ankle and proximal part of the foot.
taxisReturning a body part back to its normal position after a dislocation, fracture or hernia.
temporal boneEither of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing.
tendonA strap of white fibrous connective tissue that joins muscle to bone.
tenodesisFixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.
tenoplastySurgical repair of a tendon.
tenosynovitisInflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath.
tenotomySurgical division of a tendon for relief of a congenital deformity of a joint.
toothachePain in or around a tooth.
ulnaThe inner and longer bone of the forearm.
ulnarPertaining to the ulna, the long medial bone of the forearm.
zygomaEither of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.

Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Barbara A. Erickson
Medically reviewed by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
Last Update: 12/18/2022

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