Number of eyes-and-ears-iii flashcards: 73
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Medical TermDescription
abducens nerveA small cranial nerve which originates in the pons and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the eye. It provides horizontal eye movement control.
alacrimaDry eye.
amaurosisPartial or complete blindness caused by a disease.
anterior chamberThe space between the cornea and the iris, filled with aqueous humor.
aqueous humorThe clear, watery fluid circulating in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye.
basilar membraneA basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the organ of Corti.
biconcaveConcave on both sides, as in a lens design.
biconvexConvex on both sides, particularly in a lens design.
blepharitisInflammation of the eyelids.
blepharospasmSpasmodic winking caused by the involuntary contraction of an eyelid muscle.
cerumenThe yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by sweat glands in the external ear canal. Earwax.
choroidThe thin, highly vascular layer between the retina and sclera.
choroiditisInflammation of the choroid layer of the eye.
cochleaThe part of the inner ear (labyrinth) that is concerned with hearing.
corneaThe transparent, convex, anterior part of eye. It is the main refractory structure of the eye.
corneal edemaAn excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
dacryocystitisInflammation of the lacrimal sac.
dark adaptationAdjustment of the retina and pupil of the eyes under conditions of low light enabling increased sensitivity to light.
diopterA unit of measurement of the refractive power of a lens.
earachePain in the ear.
epiphoraOverflow of tears due to obstruction of the lacrimal duct.
episcleraThe loose connective tissue between the sclera and the conjunctiva.
episcleritisAn inflammation of the sclera, causing redness of the eye.
heterophoriaA tendency for deviation of the eyes from parallelism, prevented by binocular vision.
hippusRhythmic pupillary dilation and constriction, independent of changes in illumination or convergence.
hyphemaBleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye.
iridoplegiaParalysis of the sphincter muscle of the iris or the dilator muscle
keratoconjunctivitisInflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
keratoconusA conical protrusion of the central part of the cornea.
labyrinthA complex system of ducts and cavities that comprise the organs of hearing and balance.
labyrinthitisInflammation of the inner ear (labyrinth).
macula luteaAn oval, yellow spot in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery.
maculopathyAny pathologic condition of the macula lutea.
malleusThe largest and outermost of the three ossicles of the ear. Also called hammer.
mastoiditisInflammation of the mastoid air cells It is usually a complication of otitis media.
meibomian glandsThe small sebaceous glands located on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and conjunctiva.
miosisExcessive pupillary constriction.
mioticsDrugs causing contraction of the pupil.
myringitisInflammation of the eardrum.
nasolacrimal ductA tubular duct that conveys tears from the lacrimal gland to the nose.
nictationA reflex that closes and opens the eyes rapidly. Blinking.
ocular absorptionUptake of substances by tissues of the eye.
ocular hypertensionA condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
ocular hypotensionAbnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation.
oculomotorPertaining to or affecting eye movements.
ophthalmiaSevere inflammation of the eye.
ophthalmoplegiaParalysis of one or more of the ocular muscles.
optic nerveThe second cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the retina to the brain.
optic neuritisInflammation of the optic nerve.
optic tractNerve fiber originating from the optic chiasm that connects predominantly to the lateral geniculate bodies. it is the continuation of the visual pathway that conveys the visual information originally from the retina to the optic chiasm via the optic nerves.
orbital myositisInflammation of the extraocular muscle of the eye. It is characterized by swelling.
ossicleA small bone, especially of the middle ear.
otitisInflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain, fever, hearing disorders and vertigo.
otolaryngologyA surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
panuveitisInflammation of both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea tract.
photalgiaPain in the eye causes by bright light.
photoretinitisInjury to the retina of the eye caused by looking directly into the sun without protection.
proptosisProtrusion or bulging of the eye.
pseudophakiaPresence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
saccadesAn abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
sacculeOne of the two membranous sacs within the vestibule of the inner ear. It contains fluid, responses to gravity and provides the brain with information about head position.
scleraThe white, opaque, fibrous, outer envelope of the eyeball, covering it entirely except the cornea.
scotomaAn area of diminished vision within the visual field.
scotopicPertaining to the adjustment of the eye to low illumination.
semicircular canalsThree long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are concerned with balance.
stapesOne of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the incus to the internal ear.
tectorial membraneA membrane, present in the cochlea of the inner ear, that runs parallel with the basilar membrane.
trachomaA chronic infection of the conjunctiva and cornea caused by chlamydia trachomatis.
trichiasisA condition of ingrown hair around an orifice, particularly ingrown eyelashes.
tympanic membraneA thin, oval, semitransparent membrane separating the external ear canal from the tympanic cavity (ear, middle).
tympanocentesisNeedle aspiration of fluid from the middle ear through a puncture in the tympanic membrane.
uvealPertaining to the uvea.
uveitisInflammation of the uvea.

Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Barbara A. Erickson
Medically reviewed by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
Last Update: 12/18/2022

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