Reproductive

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Medical TermDescription
-celeswelling, hernia
-cyesispregnancy
-gravidapregnant
-parato bear offspring
-tociacondition of birth, labor
afterbirthThe placenta, umbilical cord and membranes that are expelled from the uterus after birth
amni/oamnion, sac around embryo
amniocentesisDiagnostic test for chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections. A small amount of fluid is removed from the amniotic sac.
amniotic fluidA clear, yellowish liquid that surrounds the fetus, protecting it from injury.
andr/omale
andropauseMale menopause.
Apgar scoreNewborn health assessment score (0-10).
Two points each: Appearance of skin color, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration.
areolaA ring of pigmented skin surrounding a nipple.
azoospermiaA complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate.
balan/oglans penis
breastA mammary gland of women.
breastfeedingFeeding a baby milk from the breast.
castrationRemoval of the sex glands.
cervicitisAn inflammation of the cervix
cesarean sectionA surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus, performed to deliver a fetus.
chlamydiaA common sexually transmitted disease.
chori/ochorion (outer fetal sac)
circumcisionSurgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.
clitorisAn erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.
coitusSexual intercourse.
colostrumMilk produced in late pregnancy. High in protein and antibody content.
colp/ovagina
condomA sheath that is worn over the penis during sex in order to prevent pregnancy or the spread of sexually transmitted disease.
contraceptionPrevention of impregnation.
contractionA shortening or increase in tension. In labor, the rhythmic tightening of the uterus.
copulationSexual union.
dysmenorrheaPainful cramps that can occur immediately before or during the menstrual period.
ectopic pregnancyWhen a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus.
eggA female reproductive cell prior to fertilization.
ejaculationThe sudden emission of semen from the male urethra.
embryoAny organism in the earliest stages of development.
endocervicitisInflammation of the mucous lining of the uterine cervix.
endometri/oendometrium (mucous membrane lining the uterus)
endometriosisA painful, chronic disease where the tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside it. May spread anywhere in the abdominal cavity.
epididym/oepididymis (structure within the scrotum that stores sperm)
epididymitisInflammation of the epididymis.
episi/ovulva
episiotomyAn incision made in the perineum to widens the opening of the vagina during childbirth.
erectile dysfunctionThe consistent inability in the male to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Impotence.
fallopian tubesA pair of highly specialized muscular canals that conduct the ovum from the ovary to the uterus.
fet/ofetus
fetalOf, pertaining to, or having the character of a fetus.
fetusThe embryo of a mammal in the later stages of development
fibroadenomaBenign tumors composed of stromal and epithelial tissue.
fibrocystic breast diseaseA painful, lumpy breast disease.
galact/omilk
geneticPertaining to reproduction or to birth or origin.
genitaliaThe male and female reproductive organs.
gestationThe time period of development from fertilization to birth.
gonad/osex glands
gonorrheaA sexually transmitted bacterial disease, mostly seen in young adults.
gynecologyThe branch of medicine dealing with diseases unique to women, especially those of the genital tract and breasts.
hematospermiaBlood in the semen.
heredityThe transmission of traits encoded in genes from parent to offspring.
homosexualityThe sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same sex.
hydroceleBuildup of the normal fluid around the testicle, common in infants, self-resolving.
hypomenorrheaExtremely light menstrual blood flow.
hyster/outerus
hysterectomySurgical removal of the uterus.
hysteroscopyExamination of the uterine cavity using an endoscope.
impotenceThe inability to sustain a penile erection to allow normal vaginal intercourse.
infertilityInability to conceive and produce viable offspring.
inseminationThe deposit of seminal fluid within the vagina.
laborThe childbirth process of expulsion of the fetus and placenta from the uterus.
lact/omilk
lactationProduction of milk by the mammary glands.
leukorrheaNormal vaginal discharge during pregnancy . It is thin, white, milky and mild smelling.
mamm/obreast
mammary glandMilk producing gland.
mast/obreast
mastalgiaBreast pain.
mastopexyBreast lift surgery.
men/omenstruation, menses
menarcheThe first menstrual period.
menstrual cycleThe period from onset of one menstrual bleeding to the next in an ovulating female. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the hypothalamus; the pituitary gland; the ovaries; and the genital tract.
menstruationThe (approximately) monthly discharge of blood and cellular debris from the uterus by nonpregnant women, occurring from puberty to menopause.
metr/outerus (womb)
miscarriageCommon term for the loss of an embryo or fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy.. This term is longer accepted in clinical usage.
nat/obirth
natalRelating to birth.
neonatalPertaining to a new baby, for the first 28 days after birth.
neonateAn infant less than one month old.
nulligravidaA woman who has never been pregnant.
nulliparaA woman who has never borne a child.
obstetricsThe branch of medicine concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
omphal/oumbilicus (navel)
oophor/oovary
oophorectomySurgical removal of an ovary or ovaries.
orchid/otesticles
ov/oegg, ovum
ovari/oovary
ovarianPertaining to the ovary.
ovaryEither of the sex glands in females. They produce ova and hormones.
ovulationThe discharge of an ovum from a rupturing follicle in the ovary.
penisThe external reproductive organ of males.
perimenopauseThe period of time before menopause when a woman's body changes.
perine/operineum (surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx)
peripartum periodThe period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.
phall/openis
placentaA vascular organ that develops during pregnancy, lining the uterine wall and partially enveloping the fetus. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones .
postpartumThe period that is shortly after giving birth.
preeclampsiaA serious pregnancy disorder characterized by high blood pressure, a large amount of protein in the urine and edema of hands and feet.
pregnancyCarrying developing offspring (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth.
premature ejaculationThe emission of semen and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.
priapismA abnormally prolonged erection of the penis.
primigravidaA woman who is pregnant for the first time.
prostat/oprostate
prostateA gland that is part of a male reproductive system. Located below the bladder.
pruritus vulvaeItching of the vulva.
salping/ofallopian tube
scrot/oscrotum
semenThe thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. It contains spermatozoa and their nutrient plasma and secretions from the prostate and bulbourethral glands.
semin/isemen
sexThe totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism.
sexualityThe sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at puberty under the influence of gonadal steroids (testosterone or estradiol) and social effects.
shaken baby syndromeBrain injuries resulted from vigorous shaking of an infant or young child held by the chest, shoulders, or extremities causing extreme cranial acceleration. It is characterized by the intracranial and intraocular hemorrhages with no evident external trauma. Serious cases may result in death.
spermThe male gamete or sex cell that contains the genetic information to be transmitted by the male. Also called spermatozoon.
sperm/osperm cells
syphilisA sexually transmitted disease. A bacterial infection.
test/itesticle
testicleThe testis and its ducts.
thel/enipple
toc/olabor, birth
trichomoniasisA sexually transmitted disease caused by a single-celled protozoan parasite.
tripletOne of three offspring born at one birth.
twinsTwo individuals derived from two fetuses that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the uterus simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic or dizygotic.
umbilic-umbilicus (navel)
umbilicalPertaining to the opening in the abdominal wall where the blood vessels from the placenta enter.
umbilical cordThe flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing fetus to the placenta. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
uter/outerus
uterine prolapseA condition where the uterus drops down into the vagina.
uterusThe womb. A female reproductive organ located between the bladder and the rectum.
vagin/ovagina
vaginaAn muscular tube connecting the cervix of the uterus to the vulva and exterior of the body.
varic/ovarices (swollen veins)
vulv/ovulva

Authors and Reviewers

Authored by Dr. Barbara A. Erickson
Medically reviewed by Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
Last Update: 12/18/2022
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